Physiology Causes of delayed involution Postpartum discharge Terms Complications
The return of regular menstruation after childbirth is one of the signs of the normal recovery of the female body. However, quite often this process takes place with deviations from the norms and even complications, which then have to be corrected by doctors.
Why does the reproductive system get off work after the baby is born? How is the recovery cycle after childbirth and what can be done to avoid dangerous complications? It is useful for all women to know such information in order to recognize pathology in time, seek help from specialists and fix everything.
After the birth of a baby, the restoration of menstruation is the process of the return of the endocrine glands, as well as other systems and organs to the pregenerative state. It begins with the rejection of the afterbirth and lasts from 6 to 8 weeks. During this time, in the female body, the physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy and childbirth gradually disappear. This applies to all systems: endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous, genital organs. The flourishing and development of the functions of the mammary glands necessary for full breastfeeding occurs.
Normally, the restoration of the menstrual cycle after childbirth implies the following processes:
the reverse development of the uterus to the prenatal period is called involution, and it occurs quite quickly, the muscles begin to actively decline, resulting in the size of the uterus significantly reduced, in the first 10-12 days after delivery, the uterus floor drops daily by 1 cm (this is normal ), by the end of 7-8 weeks, its value already corresponds to its former, pregenerative size, so that by the end of the first week, the uterine mass is almost halved and is about 400 grams, and by the end of the postpartum period - only 50-60 grams, not less than quickly formed as the cervical canal and internal os: the first fully formed by the 10 th day, the closure of the external os is fully completed in the third week after birth, getting slit-like shape (before the channel is like a cylinder).
Such a restoration of the menstruation cycle after childbirth is considered the norm, but there is nothing terrible if the involution is delayed or accelerated. There may be purely physiological reasons for this that cannot be considered deviations or pathologies. To worry about this is certainly not worth it. You just need to try to understand what is happening with the body, which is so long (or vice versa too quickly) is restored after labor.
Causes of delayed involution
Rapid or slow recovery of menstruation after childbirth depends on a number of reasons that a woman must take into account while waiting for the establishment of a regular cycle. This is the general state of health of a woman, and her age, and the particular course of pregnancy and childbirth, and breastfeeding.
Usually involution is slow or accelerated for the following reasons:
if the female body is too weak after childbirth, if it is the third (and more) pregnancy, if it is the first birth, and the woman is already 30 years old, if the childbirth proceeded with abnormalities, complications and pathologies, if the postpartum mode was disturbed, if young Mommy is poorly fed if she is in postpartum depression and is morally very tired.
If a woman believes that the restoration of the menstrual cycle after giving birth to her is too slow or her period began very early, she should analyze the situation and identify the reasons for such a deviation. Nothing wrong with that. To calm down and get rid of the last doubts, you can consult about this with an observant gynecologist. He will reveal the exact cause of delayed or accelerated involution and will tell you what to do with it.
What else scares young mummies during the recovery period of the menstrual cycle is postpartum discharge. They are different in character, and in color, and in duration. However, you should not be afraid of them either, since their appearance is a completely natural process. They even have a special scientific name - lochia. What are they?
The mucous membrane of the uterus after the discharge of the placenta and afterbirth - the wound surface. Her recovery ends only on the 10th day, the mucous membrane of the uterus returns to normal and even longer - only on the 7th week. In the process of healing just appear postpartum discharge. Over time, their character changes in accordance with the processes of healing and purification of the inner surface of the uterus occurring at this time:
the first days after childbirth: lochia is mixed with particles of the inner lining of the uterus, which gradually disintegrate, and because of this they contain a small amount of blood, which should not frighten the young mom, 3-4th day: the discharge becomes consistency and color blood liquids, i.e., become pinkish-yellowish, but there should be no blood in them, day 10: lochia are already light, liquid, completely free of blood, their number gradually decreases, week 3: discharge becomes scarce , as they already contain ko admixture of mucus, which is still formed from the cervical canal, 5-6-th week: lochia must be stopped at all.
If the restoration of the menstrual cycle after childbirth is characterized by abundant or not too long-lasting lochia, this is the first warning sign of complications. In this case, it is recommended to consult a specialist. As for the volume of postpartum discharge, their total number in the first week should not exceed 1,500 ml. And do not be afraid of their not very pleasant, very specific smell of rotten leaves. Sometimes there may be difficulties that only experienced gynecologists can help:
with a slow involution, lochia secretion is inhibited, blood in the secretions can stay longer if the internal pharynx has occluded due to a bend of the uterus or a blood clot, an accumulation of lochia occurs in the uterus - this complication is called a lohiometer, since the accumulated blood in the uterus serves to develop microbes nutrient medium, this condition requires medical treatment.
During the recovery period of the menstrual cycle, it is imperative to monitor the nature and duration of postpartum discharge. If everything is normal with them, then the expectation of menstruation also does not drag on.
You should know that the restoration of menstruation after childbirth during breastfeeding takes longer than with artificial. This is not a pathology or norm. It just happens that way, since this phenomenon is due to physiological processes associated with lactation. Knowledge of these features of involution will help women navigate the timing of the arrival of the first menstruation:
When artificial feeding
Restoration of the cycle after delivery usually takes from 6 to 8 weeks.
Two scenarios are possible at once:
1 - a woman does not have menstruation for several months, or even during the entire lactation period (a natural and fairly frequent route),
2 - recovery cycle after childbirth takes the same time (6-8 weeks), as in non-nursing moms.
This phenomenon is explained by the fact that in the female body there is prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production, suppresses the formation of hormones in the ovaries and prevents the maturation of the egg and its subsequent ovulation.
Most often, the recovery cycle after childbirth with HB occurs after the introduction in the diet of the first baby feeding. If the child is mixed feeding, this process may take 3-4 months. If the baby is an artificial artist, his mother can expect the arrival of the first menses by the end of the second month after birth. No deadlines here are neither deviations nor the norm. These are natural processes depending on the individual characteristics of the female body. However, in some cases, all the same there are all sorts of complications.
When restoring menstrual function after birth, young mothers may experience the following problems.
Do not be upset if in the first six months after birth the cycle can not be established. Monthly can come later or earlier than the previous term. This is quite explicable by the recovery processes of all the systems of the female body. However, if the menstrual cycle remains irregular, even six months later, this is a reason to contact a doctor with this problem.
One should not expect that he will fully recover and will be as many days as before pregnancy. In 90% of cases, its duration varies. If earlier it was 21 days, for example, now it can last up to 30 days.
Normally, they should go for at least 3 and not more than 5 days. If after childbirth you notice that they have become either too short (1-2 days) or too long (over 5 days), you should definitely tell your doctor about it. In some cases, this can be a symptom of quite serious diseases - for example, uterine fibroids (benign tumors) or endometriosis.
Volume of discharge
Normally, it should be between 50 and 150 ml. Accordingly, a smaller or, conversely, more of them will not be the norm. How to determine this parameter? In the postpartum period, the usual strip should be enough for 5-6 hours.
If they appear regularly before menstruation or after them and never go away, this is also considered a complication. Most often it is a symptom of endometriosis or endometritis.
If she, during the recovery of the menstrual cycle after childbirth, too worries a woman, prevents her from living, sleeping and working, she is forced to take painkillers or antispasmodics, this is a pathology. In medicine, it is called algodysmenorrhea, and it requires the mandatory consultation of a doctor.
Strong pain during menstruation at this stage may have a different origin: the general immaturity of the body, not sustained birth stress, psychological characteristics, associated inflammatory processes, strong muscle contractions of the uterus.
Yes, in some cases this is not the norm either. If, before giving birth, a woman had unpleasant, painful sensations during menstruation, and after the birth of the baby, they passed, this is no reason for premature joy. So, something happened to the uterus, which could change the situation. In this case, you must also be sure to check with a specialist.
Exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases
Endometritis and salpingoophoritis at such moments are activated and require medical treatment. You can learn about them by strong pains in the lower abdomen, by the abundance of secretions and their unpleasant, uncharacteristic smell.
It could not be in the prenatal period, or it could not be expressed so clearly. But after the birth of the baby, it appears in 90% of all women. This condition is characterized not only by gratuitous irritability, or a bad mood, or a tendency to tears, but also by a whole complex of physiological symptoms. These include headache, chest engorgement and tenderness, allergic manifestations, fluid retention in the body and, as a result, swelling, pain in the joints, insomnia, distracted attention. Unfortunately, there is no cure for such an incomprehensible and incapacitating state. A woman just has to learn how to manage her emotions at this stage.
They usually occur after complicated labor, when there have been bleeding, gestosis with edema, an increase in blood pressure to convulsive syndrome. In such situations, there are frequent violations of the development of eggs, hormonal changes begin, which lead to a delay in recovery of the menstrual cycle after childbirth. Since the case may end in bleeding, it is imperative to resort to the help of specialists.
The most common complication during the recovery period of menstruation after childbirth. Many women either do not know or forget that ovulation occurs approximately 2 weeks before the menstruation, which means that the risk of becoming pregnant is very high. Accordingly, you must be protected, if you do not plan in the near future another crumbs. Methods of contraception at this stage should be chosen by a doctor.
This is not all the difficulties that a woman can face when restoring the menstrual cycle after childbirth. They are much more, but they are quite rare. In order not to allow them and not to worry because of the absence of periods for too long, it is better to resolve all your doubts in the doctor’s office. It is desirable that this was the same gynecologist who led you throughout the pregnancy. He knows the individual characteristics of your body and the nuances of childbirth. Therefore, it is recommended to start with a medical examination, and then wait for the arrival of menstruation.
Young mothers are always interested when menstruation begins after childbirth. During the recovery cycle, it can change the length, monthly often acquire a different character, intensity, duration, become more or less painful than before pregnancy. Often this is the norm, but in some cases consultation with a gynecologist is required.
Bleeding in the postpartum period
Postpartum bleeding, or lochia, is a cleansing of the wound surface that forms at the site of the separated fetal membranes and placenta. They last for the entire period of recovery of the inner surface of the uterus.
At this time, the uterus is particularly vulnerable to infection, so you should regularly change the sanitary pads and monitor the nature of the discharge. They are maximally expressed within 3 days after birth, and then gradually weaken.
Sometimes such discharge stops completely every other day. This is due to a delay in blood in the uterus (hematometer), which leads to an increased risk of infection. In this case, you need the help of a doctor.
Normally, the cleansing of the uterus after the process of natural childbirth lasts from 30 to 45 days. After surgical delivery, this time may increase, due to the formation of the scar and a longer healing time.
How to distinguish menstruation from bleeding after childbirth?
Lochia gradually change their character. By the end of the 1st week they become brighter, in 2 weeks they become slimy. An admixture of blood may appear within a month, but its amount is insignificant. Usually a woman easily distinguishes this process from menstruation. Between the termination of lohii and the beginning of the first menstruation should take at least 2 weeks. In case of doubt, it is better to consult a gynecologist, or at least start using barrier contraception that protects the uterus from infections.
Start of menstruation
During pregnancy, menstruation is absent. This is a natural protective mechanism for the preservation of the fetus, which is regulated by hormones. After childbirth begins to restore the normal hormonal status of women. It lasts for a month if breastfeeding is not started.
When should menstruation begin after childbirth?
This period is determined primarily by the type of feeding the child: natural or artificial. Breast milk production occurs under the action of the pituitary hormone prolactin. It is he who inhibits the growth of the egg in the ovary during lactation. The level of estrogen does not increase, therefore, during breastfeeding, menstruation begins, on average, 2 months after birth, more often when feeding "by the hour."
For many young mothers, this gap lengthens to six months or more, especially when feeding “on demand.” In very rare cases, while breastfeeding is maintained, even periodically, women note that they have no periods for a year, and sometimes even longer. In such cases, you should regularly use contraception, and if necessary, do a pregnancy test. You also need to consult with your doctor to exclude hyperprolactinemia.
With artificial feeding from birth, the cycle duration is restored in a month - one and a half. At this time, ovulation also occurs, so a new pregnancy is possible.
When a baby eats only breast milk, all this time a woman may not have her period. In this case, the first menstruation after childbirth will begin during the first half of the year after the end of lactation "on demand" or the introduction of complementary foods. However, this is not necessary, and even during breastfeeding, menstruation can recover.
When mixed feeding (from a bottle and naturally) recovery of monthly develops faster, within 4 months after childbirth.
How long do menstruation last in the postpartum period?
Нередко первая менструация очень обильная. Могут быть сильные выделения, месячные со сгустками крови. If you have to change the gasket every hour, you should contact your doctor for help: this may be a symptom of bleeding that has begun. Subsequent periods usually become normal.
In other cases, in the first months of women appear irregular spotting. This is characteristic of breastfeeding, when prolactin synthesis gradually decreases.
Additional factors affecting the rate of recovery of a normal cycle:
difficulties in caring for a child, lack of sleep, lack of help from relatives, unhealthy food, postpartum depression, too young mothers or late childbirth, concomitant diseases (diabetes, asthma and others), especially requiring hormonal therapy, complications after childbirth, for example, Sheehan syndrome.
Changes in the menstrual cycle
Irregular periods are often stored for several cycles after delivery. These changes should not be permanent. Within 1-2 months, the cycle normally returns to prenatal characteristics or varies slightly in duration.
Scanty periods can normally be during the initial 2-3 cycles, especially if mixed feeding is used. During the first cycles after giving birth, on the contrary, some women have copious periods. This may be normal, but if menstruation does not become normal in the next cycle, you need to consult a gynecologist. The regularity of the menstrual flow is disrupted, that is, the cycle is lost. Painful periods may occur, even if a woman has never complained of pain before pregnancy. The reason for this is an infection, too much contraction of the uterine wall. In most cases, on the contrary, menstrual periods that are painful before pregnancy become normal. This is caused by the normalization of the location of the uterus in the body cavity. Some women develop premenstrual syndrome or its precursors: nausea, swelling, dizziness, emotional changes before menstruation.
Causes of postpartum menstrual changes
The delay in menstruation after birth appears under the influence of varying hormone levels:
secretion in the pituitary of prolactin, which helps to excrete breast milk and suppresses ovulation, suppression of estrogen production by prolactin, which leads to irregular menstruation or their complete absence during breastfeeding (lactational amenorrhea).
When a baby eats only mother's milk, and “on demand” and not “by the hour”, and a woman has no menstruation for six months after giving birth - this is the norm.
After the occurrence of menstruation, it is desirable to start using contraception. Although breastfeeding reduces the likelihood of conception, it is still possible. For example, if the period after childbirth began, and then disappeared, the most likely reason for this is a repeated pregnancy. You should also remember that ovulation occurs before the onset of menstrual bleeding. Therefore, it is possible pregnancy even before the first menstruation. If a woman is concerned about why there is no menstrual bleeding for a long time, you must first do a home pregnancy test, and then consult a gynecologist. You may need to consult an endocrinologist.
It is not necessary after the appearance of the menstrual cycle to refuse breastfeeding. Monthly does not change its quality. It happens that a child eats poorly these days, is naughty, refuses to breastfeed. This is usually associated with emotional disorders in a woman, her feelings about the quality of feeding.
During menstruation, nipple sensitivity may increase, feeding becomes painful. To reduce such sensations, it is recommended that before giving the baby a breast, massage it, warm it, apply a warm compress to the nipples. It is necessary to monitor the purity of the chest and axillary region. When menstruation changes the composition of the sweat, and the baby feels its smell differently. This may be another reason for feeding difficulties.
What to do if the menstrual cycle has become irregular:
In the first months of the postpartum recovery period, do not panic. In most cases, this is a variant of the norm. Each woman normalizes the cycle individually, usually during the first months of the resumption of menstrual bleeding. Irregularity is more common in women who use breastfeeding. It takes about 2 months to restore the normal function of all organs and systems. The balance in the endocrine system comes later, especially if breastfeeding is used. Therefore, a woman may feel quite healthy, but at the same time she will experience a lack of menstruation. Pay attention to the irregular cycle should be only after 3 cycles. This may be due to inflammation, endometriosis or genital tumor. The delay of the second menstruation is not dangerous, unless it is associated with re-pregnancy.
If you have any doubts, it is better to consult a gynecologist, get a diagnosis in time and start treatment.
Cycle after the pathological course of pregnancy or childbirth
Menstruation after missed abortion is not immediately restored. Only some women have regular bleeding within a month. In most cases, hormonal imbalance, which led to abortion, causes irregularity of the cycle.
After interrupting a stalled pregnancy or abortion, the first menstruation occurs within 45 days. If this does not happen, the woman should seek the help of a gynecologist.
To eliminate the causes of amenorrhea, such as the remaining part of the ovum in the uterus or inflammation, 10 days after the termination of a frozen or normal pregnancy, an ultrasound scan is necessary.
The first menstrual flow after ectopic pregnancy begins at 25 to 40 days after its completion. If they started earlier, it is probably uterine bleeding that requires a visit to a doctor. A delay of more than 40 days also requires consultation with a gynecologist. If the disease has caused severe stress in a woman, it is considered normal to extend the recovery time to 2 months.
Menstruation after a cesarean section is restored in the same way as after normal delivery. During lactation, menstruation does not come within six months. With artificial feeding, there is no menstruation for 3 months or even less. Both at physiological and at birth by caesarean section in a small part of women, the cycle is not restored within a year. If no other pathology is found, this is considered normal.
In the first few months after a frozen, intrauterine pregnancy or cesarean section, the cycle may be irregular. Subsequently, its duration may change from the previous one. But normally it is not less than 21 days and not more than 35 days. Menstruation lasts from 3 to 7 days.
After all the above situations, it is recommended to prevent a new pregnancy for at least six months. It must be remembered that the absence of menstruation is not a sign of anovulation, and even before the first menstruation a woman may become pregnant.
Pathology of menstruation
Sometimes bleeding that began in a woman after giving birth is pathological. At the same time, it is not worth waiting for several cycles to normalize, but to immediately consult a doctor.
Sudden cessation of postpartum discharge - a sign of uterine bend or endometritis, accumulation of lochia in the uterine cavity - lochyometers. Scanty periods for 3 cycles or more. Perhaps they are a symptom of hormonal disorders, Sheehan syndrome or endometritis. Irregular menstruation six months after its recovery, a break between bleeding for more than 3 months. Most often accompanied by pathology of the ovaries. Too much bleeding for 2 or more cycles, especially after a surgical method of delivery or termination of pregnancy. They are often caused by the tissues of the fetal membranes remaining on the walls of the uterus. The duration of menstruation more than a week, which is accompanied by weakness, dizziness. Abdominal pain, fever, foul odor, discoloration of vaginal discharge is a sign of a tumor or infection. Smearing spots before and after menstruation is a likely symptom of endometriosis or an inflammatory disease. Itching in the vagina, a mixture of cheesy discharge - a sign of candidiasis. Bleeding twice a month, continuing for more than 3 cycles.
In all these cases, you need the help of a gynecologist.
Sometimes, despite the apparent health of a woman, she does not have menstruation at the right time. This may be a symptom of childbirth complications - Sheehan syndrome. It occurs with heavy bleeding during childbirth, during which blood pressure drops sharply. As a result, pituitary cell death occurs - the main organ regulating the function of the reproductive system.
The first sign of this disease is the absence of postpartum lactation. Normally, in the absence of milk, menses appear after 1.5-2 months. However, in Sheehan's syndrome, gonadotropic hormone deficiency occurs. The maturation of the egg in the ovary is impaired, there is no ovulation, there are no menstrual bleeding. Therefore, if the woman who gave birth does not have milk, and then the cycle is not restored, she needs to urgently consult a doctor. The consequences of Sheehan syndrome are adrenal insufficiency, which is accompanied by frequent infectious diseases and a general decrease in the body's resistance to various stresses.
There is also the reverse problem - hyperprolactinemia. This condition is caused by an increase in prolactin production in the pituitary gland after the end of lactation. This hormone inhibits the development of the egg, causes anovulation, disrupts the normal thickening of the endometrium in the first phase of the cycle. Its excess leads to the absence of menstruation against the background of the continuing synthesis of milk.
The main causes of hyperprolactinemia are pituitary adenoma, gynecological diseases, polycystic ovaries.
Recommendations for cycle normalization
When a woman is healthy, her cycle is restored normally. To avoid possible failures, you need to follow some simple guidelines:
To enable the body to quickly restore the synthesis of hormones, you need to fully eat. Many fruits, vegetables, whole grains and water combined with regular exercise are an effective method of restoring hormonal balance. The menu should be dairy products, cottage cheese, meat. After consulting a doctor, you can take a multivitamin for nursing mothers. Do not take birth control pills. They can change hormones and cause unpredictable changes in the cycle. If a woman is sexually active, it is better to use condoms or other non-hormonal methods of contraception. Most effectively organize your mode. If the baby does not sleep well at night, you should try to get enough sleep during the day. Do not give up any help from loved ones. The good physical condition of the woman will help her recover faster. In the presence of chronic diseases (diabetes, thyroid disease, anemia, and others), it is necessary to visit the appropriate specialist and adjust the treatment.
Menstrual cycle and its phases Sequence of restoration of menstrual function. Period of restoration of the menstrual cycle. First menstruation after childbirth. Possible complications. Restoration of menstrual function after cesarean section. Useful tips
One of the signs of normal recovery of the female body after childbirth is the return of the regular menstrual cycle, which does not always go smoothly. What happens to the basis of the reproductive function of a woman after the birth of a child and how dangerous are the complications arising from this?
The menstrual cycle and its phases
The menstrual cycle is one of the manifestations of a complex biological process in a woman’s body, which is characterized by cyclical changes in the function of not only the sexual (reproductive) system, but also the cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, and other systems of the body.
More specifically, the menstrual cycle is a period from the first day of one to the first day of the next menstruation. The duration of the menstrual cycle varies in different women, but on average varies from 21 to 35 days. It is important that the woman’s menstrual cycle is always approximately the same, such a cycle is considered regular.
Each normal menstrual cycle is the preparation of a woman’s body for pregnancy and consists of several phases:
During first phase The ovaries produce the hormone estrogen, which contributes to the swelling of the inner layer of the uterus, and the follicle (the vesicle containing the egg cell) matures in the ovaries. Then ovulation occurs - the mature follicle bursts and the egg leaves it in the abdominal cavity.
In second phase the egg begins to move through the fallopian tubes to the uterus, ready for fertilization. This process lasts an average of three days, if during this time fertilization has not occurred, the egg cell dies. In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, the ovaries predominantly produce the hormone progesterone, due to which the endometrium (inner layer of the uterus) is preparing to receive a fertilized egg.
If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium begins to reject, which is due to a sharp decrease in progesterone production. Begin bleeding - menstruation. Menstruation is a bloody discharge from the genital tract of a woman, the first day of which marks the beginning of a new menstrual cycle. Normal menstruation lasts 3-7 days and at the same time 50-150 ml of blood is lost.
During pregnancy, changes in the hormonal changes occur in the body of the future mother, which are aimed at preserving the pregnancy, which causes physiological amenorrhea (absence of menstruation).
The sequence of recovery of menstrual function
After the birth of the child, the work of all the endocrine glands, as well as all other organs and systems returns to its pregenerative state. These important changes begin with the expulsion of the afterbirth and last for about 6-8 weeks. During this time, important physiological processes take place in a woman's body: almost all changes that have arisen due to pregnancy and childbirth in the genitals, endocrine, nervous, cardiovascular and other systems take place, and the function of the mammary glands develops and flourishes, which is necessary for breastfeeding .
The normal menstrual cycle is a well-coordinated mechanism of the ovaries and the uterus, so the process of restoring the work of these organs is inseparable. The process of involution (reverse development) of the uterus occurs quickly. As a result of the contractile activity of the muscles, the size of the uterus decreases. During the first 10–12 days after birth, the bottom of the uterus drops daily by about 1 cm. By the end of the 6–8th week after birth, the size of the uterus corresponds to the size of the non-pregnant uterus (for lactating women, it may even be less). Thus, the mass of the uterus by the end of the first week decreases by more than half (350-400 g), and by the end of the postpartum period is 50-60 g. Just as quickly, the internal pharynx and cervical canal are formed. By the 10th day after birth, the canal is fully formed, but the outer pharynx passes even for the tip of the finger. The external pharynx closure is completed completely at the 3rd week after delivery, and it acquires a slit-like shape (before birth, the cervical canal has a cylindrical shape).
The speed of involution may depend on a number of reasons: the general condition, the age of the woman, the characteristics of the course of pregnancy and childbirth, breastfeeding, etc. The involution can be slowed down in the following cases:
in weakened and many times giving birth to women, in primiparas older than 30 years, after pathological delivery, with the wrong regimen in the postpartum period.
After separation of the placenta and the birth of the afterbirth, the uterine lining is a wound surface. The restoration of the inner surface of the uterus usually ends by the 9-10th day, the restoration of the uterine mucous membrane - on the 6-7th week, and in the area of the placental site - on the 8th week after delivery. In the process of healing the inner surface of the uterus, postpartum discharge - lochia appears. Their character changes during the postpartum period. The nature of lochia during the postpartum period varies in accordance with the ongoing processes of purification and healing of the inner surface of the uterus:
in the first days of lochia, along with the disintegrating particles of the inner lining of the uterus, contain a significant admixture of blood, from the 3rd-4th day lochia acquire the character of a serous-synovite fluid — pinkish-yellowish; постепенно уменьшается их количество, с 3-й недели они становятся скудными (содержат примесь слизи из шеечного канала), на 5-6-й неделе выделения из матки прекращаются.
Общее количество лохий первые 8 дней послеродового периода достигает 500-1400 г, они имеют специфический запах прелых листьев.
При замедленном обратном развитии матки выделение лохий затягивается, примесь крови держится дольше. При закупорке внутреннего зева сгустком крови или в результате перегиба матки может возникнуть скопление лохий в полости матки — лохиометра. The blood accumulated in the uterus serves as a nutrient medium for the development of microbes; such a condition requires treatment — the use of drugs that reduce the uterus or, along with this, wash the uterus.
In the postpartum period, the ovaries also undergo significant changes. The reverse development of the yellow body, the gland that existed in the ovary during pregnancy at the site of the egg, released into the abdominal cavity, and then fertilized later in the tube, ends. The hormonal function of the ovaries is restored completely, and the maturation of the follicles, the vesicles containing eggs, begins again. normal menstrual cycle is restored.
Terms of recovery of the menstrual cycle
Most non-nursing women experience menstruation on the 6th – 8th week after childbirth. In lactating women, mostly menstruation does not occur for several months or during the entire period of breastfeeding, although in some of them the menstrual function resumes soon after the end of the postpartum period, that is, 6-8 weeks after childbirth. Here you should not look for norm or pathology, since the timing of the restoration of the menstrual cycle after childbirth for each woman is individual. This is usually due to lactation. The fact is that after childbirth in the woman’s body, the hormone prolactin is produced, which stimulates the production of milk in the female body. At the same time, prolactin inhibits the formation of hormones in the ovaries, and, therefore, prevents the maturation of the egg and ovulation - the release of the egg from the ovary.
If the baby is fully breastfed, that is, it feeds only on breast milk, then the mother’s menstrual cycle is often restored after the start of complementary feeding. If the child is mixed feeding, that is, in addition to breast milk, the baby’s ration includes mixtures, then the menstrual cycle is restored within 3-4 months. With artificial feeding, when the baby receives only milk formula, menstruation is restored, as a rule, by the second month after childbirth.
First menstruation after childbirth
The first menstruation after childbirth is more often “anovulatory”: the follicle (vial containing the egg) matures, but ovulation - the egg does not exit the ovary. The follicle undergoes reverse development, and at this time the disintegration and rejection of the uterine mucosa begins - menstrual bleeding. In the future, the ovulation process is resumed, and the menstrual function is restored completely. However, ovulation and pregnancy may occur during the first months after childbirth.
Many factors affect the recovery of menstrual function, such as:
during pregnancy and childbirth complications, the age of the woman, proper and complete nutrition, adherence to sleep and rest, the presence of chronic diseases, neuro-mental condition and many other factors.
What problems do young mothers have when restoring menstrual function?
The regularity of the menstrual cycle: after childbirth, menstruation can become immediately regular, but can be established within 4-6 months, that is, during this period the intervals between them can vary somewhat, differ from each other by more than 3 days. But, if after 4-6 months after the first postpartum menstruation the cycle remains irregular, then this is a reason for going to the doctor.
Duration of the menstrual cycle after delivery may change. So, if before the birth the cycle was 21 or 31 days, then it is likely that after the birth, its duration will become average, for example, 25 days.
Duration of menstruation, that is, bleeding should be 3-5 days. Too short (1-2 days) and, especially, too long menstruation can be evidence of any pathology - uterine fibroids (benign tumor), endometriosis - a disease in which the inner layer of the uterus of the endometrium grows in uncharacteristic places.
The amount of menstrual flow may be 50-150 ml, too small, as too much menstrual blood can also be evidence of gynecological diseases. Although in the first few months after the first postpartum menstruation there may be some deviations, but they must still comply with the framework of the physiological norm: for example, on the most abundant days of one average pantyum it should be enough for 4-5 hours.
Long spotting at the beginning or at the end of menstruation are also a reason for going to a doctor, as they most often indicate the presence of endometriosis, inflammatory diseases - endometritis (inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus), etc.
Sometimes menstruation is accompanied by pain. They can be caused by the general immaturity of the body, psychological characteristics, associated inflammatory processes that have arisen after childbirth, and strong muscular contractions of the walls of the uterus. If the pain is such that they disturb a woman during menstruation, force her to repeatedly take painkillers, antispasmodic drugs, disrupt the normal rhythm of life, this condition is called algomenorrhea and requires the advice of a doctor.
Although the opposite often happens after childbirth, that is, if before pregnancy menstruation was painful, then after childbirth, they pass easily and without pain. This is due to the fact that the pain can be caused by a certain position of the uterus - the bend of the uterus posteriorly, after delivery the uterus acquires a normal position.
During menstruation often exacerbated chronic inflammatory diseases - endometritis (inflammation of the uterus), salpingoophoritis (inflammation of the appendages). At the same time there are significant pains in the lower abdomen, the discharge can become very abundant, with an unpleasant, uncharacteristic smell. Trace the presence or absence of these symptoms should be especially if after birth was observed inflammatory complications.
Some women complain about the so-called premenstrual syndrome. This is a condition that manifests itself not just irritability, bad mood or a tendency to tears, but a whole complex of symptoms. Among them: engorgement and tenderness of the chest, headache, fluid retention and swelling, pain in the joints, allergic manifestations, diffuse attention, insomnia.
There are many versions regarding the causes of the development of premenstrual syndrome, but there is no single reason underlying it, and therefore there is no specific drug that would cure it completely. If a woman is worried about these symptoms, you should consult with your doctor, who will prescribe the appropriate treatment.
After childbirth, especially complicated (bleeding, severe gestosis with severe edema, a significant increase in blood pressure, up to the development of convulsive syndrome, the so-called eclampsia), dysfunctions of the ovaries can occur, which are associated with dysfunction of the central regulation - regulation of pituitary hormone production (internal gland secretion in the brain). At the same time, development of eggs in the ovaries is disturbed, hormonal changes occur and, as a result, menstruation is disturbed in the form of delays, which can be replaced by bleeding. With such manifestations, you should definitely resort to the help of specialists.
Restoration of menstrual function after cesarean section
Complicated childbirth can also lead to various disorders of menstruation. In this regard, I especially want to note the peculiarities of the restoration of menstrual function in women after cesarean section. Menstruation they come, as a rule, in the same time as after the usual birth. However, with complications in the postoperative period, menstrual function may not be restored for a long time due to the longer period of involution of the uterus due to the presence of a suture, as well as a longer process of normalization of ovarian function in infectious complications. Most likely, in this case, you will need to consult a gynecologist, who will select the necessary therapy.
After the birth of a baby, the young mother increases the load on the endocrine and nervous system. When breastfeeding increases the need for vitamins, minerals and trace elements, which are necessary for a woman for the proper functioning of the ovaries and the production of hormones. With their deficiency problems such as scanty or painful menstruation may occur. Therefore, women after childbirth are encouraged to take multivitamins with a complex of trace elements for nursing mothers and good nutrition, including dairy products, meat, vegetables and fruits.
In addition, caring for a newborn takes a lot of time and effort from a young mother, it must be remembered that the lack of a full night's sleep, lack of sleep can lead to increased fatigue, weakness, and sometimes even depressive states, which also adversely affect the formation of menstrual function. In this connection, it is necessary to make up your regime so that the young mother has time to rest during the day, if possible to save the night time for a good rest.
As mentioned above, the presence of chronic diseases can also adversely affect the formation of menstrual function, especially diseases of the endocrine system (thyroid, diabetes, etc.). Therefore, in the postpartum period, it is necessary to carry out the correction of these diseases in conjunction with specialists, thus avoiding menstrual disorders.
In conclusion, I would like to note that the restoration of normal menstrual function after childbirth is one of the main conditions for a woman’s future health. Therefore, any problems associated with its violations should be solved together with the doctor.
Article from the September issue of the journal
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very useful article
I gave birth, and the pain did not stop! sometimes the loop is also lost (((
Comment on the article "Menstrual cycle: features of recovery"
What is the reason for the lack of menstruation after birth?
After giving birth, many women confuse menstruation with lochia.
Lochia - This selection after childbirth. In the first 3 - 4 days Lochia plentiful and bloody. Then they become more scarce, with streaks of dark-colored blood.
AND In 2 weeks after childbirth, they should become light with yellowness. Such a selection suggests that the process of healing and recovery of the uterus proceeds normally.
Scanty bleeding dark color many women are confused with the beginning of the month and next month they are waiting for their repetition. When menstruation does not occur, young mothers perceive it as a delay.
While the mother is breastfeeding the baby, her body produces hormone prolactinIt is also called lactation hormone. AND the longer Mom will feed her breast milk, the more likely that monthly come later.
It is believed that if you feed the child in the daytime every 4 hours or more often (the main thing is that the interval between daytime feedings should be no more than 4 hours, and no more than 6 hours at night), then menstruation should not be expected during this period.
But when feeding goes, the time between feedings will increase, here you can already expect the beginning of the monthly cycle. But in fact, and in the other case, there are exceptions.
Previously believedthat while breastfeeding, there is no menstruation and it is impossible to get pregnant. But, as practice showsIt is precisely because of such incompetence in this matter, based on national signs, and not on the medical approach, that women gave birth to one child after another.
Because guessing the cycle recovery time is just is impossible. In some, this happens earlier, and in others later, therefore, you will not know when ovulation will occur.
It can begin without menstruation., and the next menstruation a woman can not wait, because the pregnancy has already come.
What should be the nutrition of women after childbirth, you will find in this article.
Can sea cabbage be eaten pregnant?
What to expect?
Those who suffered from pain and heavy (strong) periods before birth, after childbirth will be pleased that the period of menstruation has decreased, not to mention the decrease in the amount of discharge. For others, the opposite is true.
Therefore, conclusions can be made only after the second or even third menstruation.
Features of the first and second menses
Often the woman the first periods after childbirth are abundant and very similar to bleeding. It's quite normal. The uterus must be cleansed of all that remains after childbirth, and prepared for a new baby.
But the most important thing - Pay attention to the color and smell of discharge. If something seems suspicious and abnormal, you should contact your gynecologist.
Do not worry, this is also normal. The body will soon recover, and everything will fall into place.
Is pregnancy possible after an abortion? Read about it here.
Stay on our site https://puziko.online/ and you will find a lot of useful information for yourself.
Can I feed my baby during her period?
One more mythcommon among young moms: breastfeeding during menstruation.
The beginning of the monthly in no way means that the baby should be deprived of such a precious food.which is so important in the early period. The beginning of the month will not spoil the taste of milk and will not harm the baby.
Just milk during this period may be a little less, but it is only for a couple of days, and lactation will return to normal again.
What should pay attentionand in what cases you need to see a doctor:
- if you stopped breastfeeding and your period did not start after 2-3 months, then this is a reason to go to the gynecologist,
- if you think that the monthly suspicious color, for example, bright red - it looks like bleeding,
- if you find large clots in your menstrual blood,
- if your periods have an unpleasant pungent smell,
- if you feel dizzy, weak or faint during your period,
- if during the monthly heartbeat increases.
If you are tormented by any doubt in what is happening to you, it is best to consult your doctor for advice, rather than suffer in conjecture and worry about your condition.
Therefore, if you have heard that someone of your friends has experienced this before, and you have not yet had critical days, then this is not a reason to worry.
People often ask: Can Wilprafen be pregnant? The answer to the question, look in our article.
This article will tell you about the useful (and not very) properties of dates during pregnancy.
Recovery figure after childbirth
As for nutrition, be sure to include foods rich in vitamins and trace elements in the menu. They will help recuperate and maintain energy throughout the day. In addition, do not forget about fortified natural teas that will strengthen the immune system and prevent the risk of infectious diseases. For these purposes, it is recommended to use broth hips, tea from raspberry leaves. If after childbirth worries constipation, then include in the diet a couple of dried apricots. Try to eat only healthy food, so as not to harm the child and feel healthy and full of energy.
A balanced balanced diet, among other things, is also a necessary factor for stabilizing the weight and restoring the body after childbirth. In order to return the "figure indicators" to the old standards, experts recommend reviewing the diet in favor of healthy low-calorie and low-fat foods. As always in the case of losing weight, it is desirable to significantly limit the diet of flour products and confectionery, instead of sausage and sausage products - give preference to dietary meat, in sufficient quantities to eat fruits and vegetables, dairy products. Meals should be divided into 5 times a day, eat in small portions.
Helping to return the forms after childbirth will help and physical activity, only to begin to perform gymnastic exercises not earlier than one month after childbirth, but exercises for the press in the complex can be entered later in 6-8 weeks. For the speedy recovery, it is desirable to make physical exertion regular, doing daily for 30-40 minutes. A huge service in terms of recovery, muscle strengthening, figure recovery will be provided by swimming, dancing, even usual long walks with a child at a “fast pace”.
Balanced nutrition and physical activity are the main components for restoring metabolism as well, on which the recovery of mommy in general also depends directly. In addition to these two "components", a full sleep is important for the normalization of metabolism, which means you should not deny yourself the pleasure of sleeping when there is an opportunity. Infant tired and "gone" in the afternoon sleep? Lie down with it - dirty dishes or an uncleaned dining table can be removed later, but you will not have to sleep enough and redeem a couple more months.
Do not forget about personal care: some cosmetic procedures can contribute to the process of restoring the figure. We are talking about self-massage, which is allowed with the use of moisturizing and anti-cellulite products. А еще – о пилинге: как с целью возвращения коже красоты и упругости, так и с целью восстановления форм.
Восстановление груди после родов
Another “problematic” place, about the forms of which a woman after childbirth can grieve, is her chest. The fact that childbirth can change the shape of the breast, a woman should be aware of even at the stage of carrying a baby. And even then, to implement the "action of prevention": choose a comfortable and correct bra, follow the posture and regularly perform some simple exercises to strengthen the muscles of the chest.
In principle, these same recommendations remain relevant for the postpartum period in order to restore the breast. Plus - some are added to them, such as the practice of a contrast shower, massages and breast skin care with the help of special creams or cosmetic oils.
After giving birth, the body of each newly-made mother adjusts to milk production in order to feed the born baby. For this is the hormone produced by the pituitary gland of the brain - prolactin. For its function, it is often called "milk". The production of prolactin inhibits the formation of other hormones, in particular, follicle-stimulating (FSH, is responsible for the growth and formation of the dominant follicle) and luteinizing (LH, the correct functioning of the corpus luteum depends on it).
The amount of prolactin begins to increase in the blood of a woman already at the end of pregnancy, in the third trimester. Clinically, this is manifested in the appearance of droplets of colostrum (a colorless, odorless liquid) when pressed on the areola. Further, the level of this hormone will directly depend on the intensity of stimulation of the nipple and the exhaustion of milk. The more actively this happens, the more prolactin is produced. And vice versa. Therefore, if a woman does not put the baby to her breast on the first day, and also refuses to express milk, the amount of his baby’s milk will soon decrease until the end of lactation, and soon after the postpartum period, menstruation will come.
The peak of prolactin formation occurs in the early morning, so in order to increase the formation of the hormone, night feeding is important. The more often a woman feeds a baby at night, the lower the probability of menstruation and, accordingly, ovulation.
Diseases associated with malfunction of the pituitary gland
At the end of pregnancy and during childbirth, a woman’s body experiences maximum loads on all organ systems. Disruption of the blood supply to the pituitary gland can cause the death of its cells in whole or in part. Risk factors for such conditions are the following complications during pregnancy and childbirth:
- moderate and severe preeclampsia,
- massive blood loss in natural childbirth, as well as during cesarean section,
- development of DIC in this period.
As a result, a woman acquires postpartum hypopituitarism (Shihan syndrome) of varying severity, which depends on the percentage of necrosis of the pituitary gland. This disease is characterized by a deficiency of hormones that regulate the ovaries and uterus, the thyroid gland, and the body's metabolism. Clinically, Sheehan's syndrome manifests as a lack of menstruation, weight loss, the appearance of edema throughout the body, a decrease in blood pressure, hypothyroidism occurs.
The treatment of Sheehan syndrome is one thing - taking all the necessary hormones for life: the thyroid gland, estrogen and some others for regulating metabolism.
Thyroid gland malfunction
If after childbirth the cycle of menstruation has gone astray, then the reason may be hidden in the disruption of the thyroid gland, the functioning of which is closely connected with the genitals. Hypothyroidism, in addition to the violation of menstruation, will lead to overweight, dry skin and hair, brittle nails and some other manifestations.
Additional surgical interventions during cesarean section
Sometimes during a cesarean section, the volume of the operation can be expanded as indicated. If the manipulations affect the ovary, it can lead to cycle failures afterwards. Such violations are temporary, pass after the standard treatment regimen. But sometimes ovarian depletion can occur. The risk group includes age-related primordial and multiparous females with multiple births, as well as those who have previously performed ovarian surgery. Monthly in such girls can dramatically change their character after childbirth. As a rule, they become very scarce, and soon they end altogether.
When to wait for the recovery cycle
Restoration of menstrual function depends on whether a woman is breastfeeding a child or not. The postpartum period lasts 6 to 8 weeks, and bleeding after childbirth can last up to 42 days. Moreover, if in the first days they are abundant and often with clots, then every day the number of lohii decreases, and after 20–30 days only yellowish insignificant secretions can be observed. The factor, whether operational or natural childbirth, at the onset of menstruation does not affect.
If there is lactation
It is believed that during the entire period of breastfeeding there should be no monthly periods, and the probability of pregnancy is reduced to zero. It's a delusion. Everything is very individual: someone for all the time of lactation will not have menstruation, while others already on the fifth week after birth with normal breastfeeding will begin the usual critical days.
The main factors that directly affect when the menstruation begins, if the woman continues to breastfeed:
- The intensity of night feeding. The less a woman breastfeeds, the earlier her period will begin.
- Introduced prikorm kid. As soon as the child begins to give extra food (feed mixtures or porridge), the cycle begins to recover.
Thus, while the woman at least slightly feeds the baby, especially at night, the cycle may fluctuate. But it should fall within the range of acceptable values - from 21 to 35 days, and the duration from 3 to 7 days. Normally, blood loss during critical days should be about 80 - 100 ml, but up to 150 - 200 ml is allowed if no other pathology is detected and the woman is not disturbed by anything. Often the first two or three months of discharge may be more abundant, at this time you should use the traditional hemostatic methods (nettle broth, water pepper) and elementary preparations (etamzilat, vikasol, tranexam, etc.).
If there is no lactation
In the case when a woman does not use breastfeeding for any reason from the moment of the birth of the baby, the periods can come within 4 to 5 weeks after giving birth. Moreover, pregnancy can occur in 1 - 2 months.
We recommend to read the article on the normal cyclical menstruation. From it you will learn about the duration and regularity of the natural menstrual cycle, the rates of blood loss, the causes of pain.
What to do if the cycle does not return to normal
If within 6 months after the monthly period began, their regularity has not recovered, you should consult a doctor, be examined and find out if there is any pathology, and whether the cycle can be lost after giving birth for this reason.
What other factors will have to be adjusted to adjust the menstrual function?
- Complete breastfeeding. And if a long time from the nipples will be allocated droplets of milk, this indicates a still elevated level of prolactin. Therefore, the cycle can be lost and therefore.
- As long as the body weight of the woman will significantly exceed the norm, there may be failures.
- In the case of pathology of the thyroid gland should start taking hormones under the control of tests.
- Sheehan's syndrome requires lifelong hormone replacement therapy.
- When ovarian depletion should also start taking contraceptives containing sex hormones. The choice of the drug and the dose should be selected by the doctor.
- If the cause of failure of the menstrual cycle lies in the psycho-emotional lability of a woman, you should consult a psychologist or psychiatrist, who, if necessary, will recommend antidepressants including.
- Sufficient exercise and proper nutrition also have a positive effect on the menstrual cycle.
Failure of the menstrual cycle after childbirth can be both functional and pathological. If after six months from the end of lactation (or after childbirth, if breastfeeding was not) the menstruation has not recovered, you should pay attention to this alarming factor, be examined and in time to identify the cause of violations.
From it you will learn about the reasons for the long delay, the resumption of the cycle after childbirth, the consequences of menstruation delay. . The plant helps to restore the clarity of the menstrual cycle, unless of course this problem is not related to.
Pregnancy / childbirth. . After unsuccessful attempts, the cycle can be reinstalled for a long time. . And then with a violation of the cycle, the question arises how to restore the cycle of menstruation without hormones.
So after childbirth, the mucous membrane of the uterus heals at the placenta attachment site. . Lost cycle after childbirth: causes and solutions. Can I get pregnant if there is no monthly.
Lost cycle after childbirth: causes and solutions. How many after the birth goes spotting? Monthly breastfeeding.
Monthly after childbirth and abortion. Often the cycle before and after these events changes not only calendar-wise, but also symptomatically. The blame is all the same hormones that determine recovery after childbirth, lactation.
How is the restoration of the menstrual cycle after the birth of the baby 6. One of the main signs of recovery of the female body after childbirth is the acquisition of regularity by the menstrual cycle.
Female body after childbirth
The body of a woman after birth does not immediately begin to function as before pregnancy. The long 9 months have gone on to give rise to a new life, so the recovery will also take place gradually, in stages, and a full return to the previous state will come no earlier than in 2-3 months - and this is only in the case when the woman is completely healthy and Do not practice breastfeeding.
Knowing what happens to the female body after childbirth, you can more clearly visualize the entire recovery period. Let's try to fix all changes in the form of a table to make it easier.
What happens to a woman's body after giving birth?
If you pay attention to how much time the body recovers after childbirth, it becomes clear: in fact, it is significantly weakened by the stress experienced. A woman who has latent chronic illnesses can manifest for the first time:
- arthritis and other joint diseases
- hormonal problems
If you notice that the body is restored after childbirth for a long time, it is possible that one of these diseases makes itself felt. The already existing old “sores” also become more acute, especially after the second birth: for example, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, herpes. By the way the body is restored after childbirth, you can draw some conclusions about the health status of women. If recovery processes take too much time, it is worth thinking about a comprehensive examination.
On the other hand, pregnancy, especially in the late reproductive age, does have a positive effect on the work of some systems, in particular, hormonal systems. This is what they mean when they say that the body is renewed and rejuvenated. The placenta, which is formed by the 2nd month of pregnancy, produces many female hormones:
They slightly prolong the youth of a woman: she can have a menopause later (and it flows more easily), later menopause occurs.
Updating the body after childbirth means a change in psychological attitude. If a woman is “aged” and was already preparing to gradually prepare for climax, then after giving birth to a child she has a goal to educate a new member of society, which means that she will have to keep herself in good shape for many more years. With postpartum depression, such women face less often young.
These medical examinations also indicate a reduction in the level of "bad" cholesterol. Many women become like “smarter” with the advent of the child: they have to constantly keep abreast of events, engage in the development of the child, and therefore develop themselves.
In addition, all 9 months of pregnancy in the ovaries do not mature eggs, which means that the reproductive function - the ability to become a mother - is prolonged. Ovules age before all other cells in the body - this is a proven fact. Pregnancy pushes this irreversible process in time.
How to restore the body after childbirth?
Almost all women, when they calm down a bit after everything they have experienced, are wondering how to restore the body after childbirth quickly, especially if it “behaves” not very well and does not return to normal.
Time adjustment at all different. When breastfeeding is usually the body recovers more rapidly.
When the uterus is completely cleared of the remnants of the functioning of the fetus and birth trauma heals, you can begin physical education classes - gradually and very carefully. After 2 months (with complicated delivery, with a caesarean section - a little longer) sexual relations are resolved. An orgasm experienced by a woman helps to speed up the processes of recovery and healing due to a powerful rush of blood to the pelvic organs.
It is advisable to take special vitamins, especially if the hair falls out stronger than usual and exfoliates the nails.
Keeping up your baby and walking with a stroller help to keep yourself in good physical condition. Then you should add a number of exercises. For example, if weak muscles of the vagina and incontinence are observed, Kegel exercises should be done: alternately squeeze and relax the muscles. Another exercise from this series: you need to push it for about 30 seconds, then sharply relax the muscles of the vagina. After some time, the tone will return.
In order not to lose the beautiful shape of the breast, you need to wear a supporting bra, use creams and masks for stretch marks.
The situation with fat deposits in the waist and abdomen area is somewhat more complicated. It is impossible to lose weight sharply, even if you are no longer feeding the child - it is harmful for the woman herself. Stretch marks and sagging skin in such cases are almost inevitable.
It is necessary to focus not on reducing the diet, but on physical activity: after 2.5-3 months after birth, start pumping the press from the prone position (this reduces the load on the back). Daily long walking at an energetic pace, careful stretching of the muscles, pumping the press - all this will help you quickly regain a good shape.
And one more important point: the young mother must necessarily find time for herself to sleep, to rest a little bit in silence, just to lie down. Therefore, do not strive to do everything yourself, ask the household for help in caring for the baby. The more and better you relax, the sooner you will recover, and your former health and energy will return to you.
Cardiovascular and respiratory system
The respiratory system is restored immediately after childbirth, as the uterus displacing the diaphragm no longer prevents the lungs from breathing into their full breasts. Dyspnea takes place, the load on the heart decreases. The cardiovascular system during pregnancy has undergone great changes - an increased volume of blood may be felt for some time after childbirth edema. The volume of circulating blood comes to the pre-pregnancy level gradually.
In the first days after childbirth, due to natural physiological bleeding from the birth canal in the absence of pathologies of the circulatory system, the coagulation ability of the blood is enhanced, especially in women after cesarean section. Due to increased thrombosis after surgery, it is recommended to wear compression stockings on the first day when bed rest is indicated.
Restoration of the uterus, vagina, menstrual cycle
Recovery of the uterus after birth takes 6-8 weeks. The whole process is accompanied by postpartum discharge - lochia. The first 2-3 days, they resemble abundant periods, then the force of bleeding begins to decline and after a week during the natural birth discharge lighten, they contain impurities of mucus and blood clots. With a caesarean section, the bleeding and recovery period of the uterus lasts longer.
The process of involution of the uterus is accompanied by painful contractions. Thus, its volume and size decrease. Immediately after giving birth, the uterus weighs about 1 kilogram and is like a ball. By the end of the recovery period, it returns to a slightly larger weight and size than that of a non-pregnant woman - 60–80 grams, and takes on the usual “non-pregnant” pear-shaped shape.
Accelerates the recovery period of the uterus hormone oxytocin. Naturally, it is released into the bloodstream every time a baby is attached to the breast, so when feeding in the first days after birth, painful contractions of the uterus are felt.
The more often a woman breastfeeds, the faster the uterus contracts.
With a weakened uterine tone, the recovery process is unsatisfactory and there is a threat of complications such as uterine bleeding, congestion of lochia, leading to inflammatory diseases of the genital organs that can spread throughout the abdominal cavity in advanced cases. Самое частое послеродовое осложнение — эндометрит, воспаление слизистой оболочки матки. Индикатором подобных осложнений служат лохии — их объем, вид, запах и длительность периода выделений.
Recovery after childbirth of the menstrual cycle in the absence of breastfeeding occurs after 1.5–2 months, with mixed feeding up to six months, with full breastfeeding, the periods vary from 6 months to 1.5–2 years. The values of these averaged and may vary depending on the individual characteristics of the woman's body.
Repeated pregnancy can occur immediately with the establishment of the menstrual cycle. Moreover, the signal of such readiness of the organism for conception does not necessarily become menstrual bleeding. Ovulation - the process of release of an ovary ready for fertilization from the ovary, occurs before menstruation in about 2 weeks, and pregnancy can take a woman by surprise.
Significant changes in natural childbirth undergoes the cervix and vagina. Force the acquisition of the original form of the vagina can Kegel exercises.
In addition to the beneficial effects on the female genital system, these exercises solve the problem of urinary incontinence after childbirth.
With the restoration of the muscle tone of the perineum and vagina, it will be close to the size of a non-pregnant woman, but it will not be the same.
During the period of restoration of the reproductive system, the production of female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, is reduced, which leads to the natural dryness of the vagina. The same thing happens when breastfeeding - the biological rhythm of the reproductive system is controlled by the hormone “feeding” prolactin, suppressing sex hormones, and vaginal dryness in a nursing mother can be observed for quite a long time - six months, and sometimes a year.
The slowest involution of the cervix occurs. It ends on average at 4 months after delivery. During vaginal delivery, the form of the external pharynx is not restored, and the gynecologist, when examined, easily determines the woman who has given birth - the opening of the cervix becomes slit-like, unlike the round one that has not given birth. The cervix itself takes on the shape of a cylinder; before the birth, it looked like an inverted cone.
Rehabilitation and recovery after cesarean section
Recovery after childbirth in the operational mode of delivery is slower. Rehabilitation after cesarean section involves early physical activity - the first attempts to get up and walk should be done already 6–12 hours after the operation. In the first days after birth, oxytocin injections are used to stimulate uterine contractions. For the same purpose, it is important to organize and maintain breastfeeding, it is useful to lie on the stomach.
After intervention in the abdominal cavity, intestinal functions are impaired, temporary paralysis occurs and motor functions weaken, leading to constipation. The adhesions process in the abdominal cavity starts, which can subsequently significantly affect both the state of the organs and systems of the small pelvis, and health in general.
The risk of postpartum complications after cesarean due to the reduced tone of the uterus is slightly higher than during natural childbirth. Walking, moderate exercise, breastfeeding on demand, rather than a schedule, are prophylaxis of the above-described conditions and contribute to the normal course of the postpartum recovery.
As for the duration of uterine involution after cesarean section, it lasts about 8 weeks and is often accompanied by a longer period of heavy bleeding. Sutures are removed on day 5–7 after surgery
Digestion and stool normalization occurs within 6–7 weeks after childbirth, therefore during this period it is better to avoid taking difficult-to-digest food.
Restoration of the abdominal muscles due to the presence of scar and painful sensations is delayed, and the abdominal exercises can be started only after pain and discomfort do not make themselves felt. On average, it takes about six months after surgery.
Otherwise, recovery after childbirth by caesarean section is no different from that of women who give birth naturally.
Breast and endocrine system
Breast form after childbirth and especially long-term breastfeeding will no longer be the same. The process of reverse development of the mammary glands begins with the completion of lactation. This happens gradually with a decrease in the number of attachments of the child to the breast - the level of prolactin in the body decreases, the production of milk decreases.
The glandular tissue of the breast, in which milk production took place, degrades and is replaced by fatty tissue, which reduces the elasticity of the breast. The lactiferous ducts are closed and approximately 6 weeks after the last application of the baby, the breast takes its final shape.
With the fall of prolactin levels, the secretion of estrogen and progesterone increases, and the hormonal balance comes to a normal rate within 1-2 months. When a woman noticed that there is practically no milk in her breast, you need to curtail feeding at all. Rare episodic attachments to the benefit of an infant that has already grown up and does not need breast milk provoke sudden jumps of prolactin, which makes it difficult for the organism to reorganize.
If a woman has not yet had her period, then with a complete cessation of breastfeeding, the cycle should recover within a month.
The absence of menstrual bleeding for 2 months is a reason to contact an endocrinologist.
In addition to the internal systems and organs during pregnancy, the appearance of the woman also changes. The problems of overweight, loose skin, stretch marks, hyperpigmentation do not color and can upset anyone. If you add psychoemotional instability, then a not very funny picture emerges. Recovery in this sense may take longer than physiological. But all this stuff, and even if you do not become exactly like in a previous life, but you can come closer to the ideal. Health mother and baby!